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  1. Averroès: le philosophe et la Loi

Translated with an Introduction by Arthur Wollaston. Penguin Classics, L Etat d'usage. Texte en espagnol. Full leather. A pristine copy of the printing. Clean and Fine in its rich red leatherette. And in a crisp Fine dustjacket. Mit einer Einf. Authorized Edition. Good Condition. Size: 16mo very small. Binding is tight spine fully intact. Previous owner's inscription in ink. All edges clean neat and free of foxing. Quantity Available: 1. The borrowing is noted on the notice of certain recordings, and by the Bach-Gesellschafft.


Averroès: le philosophe et la Loi

This occultation not by intention of the borrowing is not peculiar of the Bach's masterpiece. For example, the famous Symphonie fantastique Berlioz which contains in its last movement a theme of Tomas de Celeno is presented under the name of Berlioz alone as all masterpieces which contains Dies irae. These inaccuracies and false attributions generally contribute to maintain the prestige of the most celebrated composers to the detriment of the least.

Still agreeing to the experts, the main theme of the first mouvement of the famous Concerto im italienischen Gusto BWV was noted by Handel 10 years earlier in Italy. So, the authenticity of the violin concertos is debated These inauthenticities, suspicions of inauthenticity, and these very numerous borrowings that we do not enumerate here , involve a considerable doubt on the global value of Bach'work because they concern his most celebrated masterpieces, those which have probably led to his notoriety, particularly his most famous masterpiece, the Toccata and Fugue BWV Then, the Cantor would have acquired an undeserved notoriety thanks to borrowings or transcriptions, notoriety which would be spread on his other works, authentic, thanks to the name acquired.

On this subject Fauquet et Hennion remark the role of Ave Maria of Gounod, presented by this composer above the name of Bach. Only the accompaniment is an use of Bach Prelude. Then, the musical interest of the work, mainly bounded to the melody, is due to Gounod and not Bach.. He considers that Bach would change the works of these mediocre composers into genius masterpieces, giving them a depth that alone the Cantor was capable of.

The maestro certainly enjoyed it. First, the pleasure to change into a more perfect masterpiece the work he considers : in a excellent article, M. Schering indicates all the good modifications done by Bach. Above all he enlarges them. The thin boughs he has collected, perhaps with an inattentive hand, are changed into marvellous trees.

The fact that a great musicologist presents an important succession of borrowings who is in fact a plagiarism as a patronising of a superior mind allows to see the importance of the Bach cult. Certainly, the use of themes coming from other composers are not peculiar to Bach, but they reach in this composer a crucial point. Remark we do not know any borrowings important in Vivaldi.

The Cantor would be more often a compilator than a creator. More generally, the importance of the problem of authenticity in Bach is so important that the musicologist Carl de Nys thinks it is difficult to judge the instrumental work of this composer :. Now, since these lines of Carl de Nys published in , the problem of authenticity - that we do not consider here precisely - has evolved rather unfavourably for the Cantor.

Do we know really to-day the total importance of borrowings, transcriptions or manipulations in the work of Bach? Another cause, very strong, could have be important to involve Bach's celebrity : it is the religious role of his works. This role must not be underrated, but it shows an interest who is not purely musical. Thus, the success of Bach religious music cannot alone give a proof of the purely musical interest for his work. So, he would have brought satisfaction to a public searching lack of expression and uniformity. There is more depth, in the skolion of Sekeilos than in the whole colossal work of Bach.

And it is this lack of depth in Bach, his ingenuous seriousness, which makes his charm and represents the attraction he has on the middle-class. To-day, the middle-class listens to the Art of Fugue as it listened yesterday to the Traviata. Because the lover-music have had an indigestion of human passions, and to-day they search peace of the heart, a game that goes beyond feeling. Fayard , p Of course, it is an personal opinion very hypothetical of this musicologist, who contrast to the general opinion. The success - relative - of Bach works in the public would be explained, on, the other hand, by the influence of medias manipulated by the Intellectuals.

If ideally the demand creates supply in actual market, we cannot be ignorant that the ideological causes can invert this phenomenon. The importance of Bach in comparison with Vivaldi in the books sometimes 10 to 1 does not seems equal in the sales of recording, not so important for Bach. Vivaldi was one of the most sold composer in the years and his title The four seasons has obtain the record of sale during many years. We can see the importance of the influence of the mass-medias in some popularising books.

Soleil et J. Another cause can explain the actual success of Bach, it is the importance of illusion in the musical judgment. It is necessary to consider sociology, especially the Durkheim theory. According to this sociologist, when the African prostrates himself in front of his totem, it is not essentially because of a peculiar characteristic of this totem, but because it is the object of a collective manifestation which united the group.

In itself, the totem is neutral and cannot involve an emotional stimulation. This thesis, in the absolute, denies any value to an artistic masterpiece. If, as we think, it cannot be applied to the whole works of music although there is no proof , we can think that the ideological cause, as in the Durkeim theory, is present in the genesis of the notoriety of a composer rather about a particular masterpiece , according to varied ways.

If we consider the existence of a Bach cult, Bach is, more than another, the composer to whom we can most apply the durkheimian criticism. So, the illusion would be explained, about Bach as about numerous other composers, by the influence of a celebrated name, when the bound of celebrity is established. After, the autosuggestive phenomenon would happen: common musical effects on the work lead the conditioned listener real emotions as epiphenomenon of cerebral sensibility.

These emotions, in intensity, in quality, would not of course be compared to emotions induced by a genius masterpiece. How many admirers of Well-Tempered Clavier would consider this work as genial if it have been presented under the name of an unknown composer? And before the time when authenticity was doubtful, the Bach desattributed masterpiece have not seemed lower than the Bach authentic masterpiece. This fact seems to show that Bach is not fundamentally higher than the others composers, at least not for certain works.

It is a real natural experience in double blind , as the same done by scientists in medicine. This argument is true also for all the celebrated composer, that would show generally that the well known composers are not fundamentally higher than the unknowns. That is shown in the book of Rebatet:. Rebatet, Lucien, Une histoire de la musique, Laffont, Paris, , p And about the Fantasy-Concertos , then the melodies : Chattering and cavalcade in the emptiness, with a bad way almost indecent.

The book of Lucien Rebatet has been issued another time in France Laffont, Paris, 30 years after his first issue. An issue in Spanish also exists Una historia de la musica, Omega, , that show the importance of the current of thinking he represents. The independent authors, who are not inclued in a university structure, like Lucien Rebatet, do not hesitate to assert value judges.

The book of Lucien Rebatet, without musicological value, seems to have a great sociologic meaning because it reveals openly the dominant ideology of its time. It is probably the most emblematic book which represents what we could name the ideal of the superior music-lover of the 20th century.


An important feature in Bach's works, as often in the polyphonicals works in the 17th century, is the complex rules of composition, and also a cabalistic or esoteric content whose musical significant is doubtful. The difference with the purely lyric content of Vivaldi's work, who create only musicals effects, is striking. The musicologist Charles Rosen writes about the Art of the Fugue that this masterpiece must be learned at the time when it is played. It would be a score for eyes and not for ears. The importance and the real role of secret codes, hermeneutic symbols in art have been often denounced.

We can suppose in fact than this conceptual order is not intuitively perceived. This criticism reduce the credibility of the Cantor. All the efforts which were done to show the depth of Bach thanks to numerology on the contrary would show his superficiality. Thus, at the end of this analysis, Bach is contested by the double knowledge of recent musicology and sociology. It is symptomatic to remark the considerable efforts of the musicographers to present Bach as a modern composer, an innovator, and so show his superiority, speech invalidate by the musicographic analysis.

Curiously, the authors continue to assert the modernity of Bach in terms general and idealist and they recognize objectively his archaism when they consider the musical works. Generally, the same authors who flatter Bach provide objective arguments against elogies they have lavished.

  3. Hes Only a Prayer Away;
  4. Puccini: Airs d'opéras (Sung in French, Mono Version).
  5. A music course at Sarah Lawrence College in Paris.
  6. Steuerfahndung: Situationen erkennen, vermeiden, richtig beraten (German Edition)?

These arguments - on which our article is mainly founded - can consequently be exonerated of any partiality against Bach. Certain have liked to show Bach as a revolutionary composer : it is to know nothing about his real genius. Bach distrusts news forms The biggest confusion often appears in the notices about Bach because it is difficult to conciliate the ideological necessities and the musicological reality. This conflict between ideology and objective analysis appears yet in the 19th century. If the musician, who writes especially for the church and the courts, innovates little, however he gives to each form a perfection and an extensiveness never reached before he.

Though its depth, its mastery, his interior lyrism, the art of Bach, ahead of his time, prepares all modern music, and representes its most important basis. Druilhe, Paule - Histoire de la musique - Librairie Hachette, paris, , p The notice of G. The work of Bach is not in its place into its time. Dictionnaire usuel de la musique Honneger, Bordas, Paris, Arrived at the good time, heir of all acquisitions of past and at the same time completely warped towards future, he has, with genius, used all the resources of polyphony and has arranged it in harmonist yet entierely modern.

The biographies are often the pilling up of stratums accumulated during the musical historiography, stratums whose elements can contradict themselves without embarrass the authors. It appears rather than these novelties would be attributed to Scarlatti or Vivaldi. The would-be modernity of Bach, the boldness some assign to him appear hardly in keeping with the image of the man given by his biography according to the biographers , a laborious, religious, traditional man, who does not search originality, an image which is not in keeping with the image of an artist and opposed to the image high in colours of Vivaldi.

In the same time, to contradict the criticism of coldness about intellectuual scores and especially to make Bach ahead of his time, the musicographers have tried to show he was, nevertheless his formalism, a romanticist, and there was a peculiar warmth in his counterpoint. This tendency showed Bach in accordance with the new music conception considered as superior in 19th century: to create a deep emotion, touch the soul and not to represent a conceptual order perceived by intelligence or as a sensual pleasure, superficial, old obsolete conceptions.

People want that the music give emotion and mind is not considered p Cannone, Belinda - Philosophies de la musique - Aux amateurs du Livre, Paris, Pirro absolutely wants to demonstrate that Bach was a passionate romanticist, this fact explaining why Bach was misunderstood by his contemporaries:. The excessive boldness and the multiple strenght of his wild themes gave to his works an exaggerated character who seemed intolerable.

This interpretation of this musicologist is very amazing if we know that Bach, during his life, according to biographers, was considered by everyone as an old wig , a traditionalist whose musical personality was dull Bach was a traditionalist, good counterpoint teacher and excellent player, but not more Bach composes a tumultuous music which talks about storms and desperation.

Then the readers will recognize, under the severe dress of the Cantor, the expressive musician, the wild and vehement forerunner of Beethoven and Richard Wagner. Melodic or rythmic forms are used by Bach to evoke joy, anger, pain, sorrow The speech has not changed to-day. About Art of fugue, Marc Vignal write in a book issued in This didactic score with extraordinary writing has such a great expressive beauty Dictionnaire de la musique Larousse, on the direction of Marc Vignal p.

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