Unless you're linking HLA code with a main program written in another language, or you completely understand the HLA start up sequence, you should always use this identifier to specify the entry point of an HLA main program. Note that if you circumvent this entry point, HLA does not properly set up the exception handling facilities and other features of the language. So change this name at your own risk. The first numeric value indicates the amount of heap space to reserve, the second parameter specifies the amount of that heap space to actual map into the address space.
This sets aside room for a 16 Mbyte heap and makes all of it available to your program. This is a rather large value for the heap, especially if you write short programs that don't allocate much memory dynamically. For most small applications you may want to set this to a more reasonable smaller value.
As a general rule, you should set both operands to the same value. These options tell the linker to produce a map file.
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The first form, without the optional filename, causes the linker to produce a map file with the same base name as the output file and a suffix of ". The second form lets you specify the name of the map file. The map file is a text file that contains several bits of information about the object file. You should produce a map file something and view this information with a text editor to see the kind of information the linker produces. None of this information is usually essential, but it is handy to have now and then.
By default, HLA does not produce a map file. This option merges the segment section named from to to. This will cause the linker to concatenate the two segments in memory. This is roughly equivalent to using the same combine class string in the segment declaration. This option specifies the output executable filename. By default, HLA appends ". EXE" to the base name of your program and uses that as the executable name.
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If you would prefer a different name, then use this option to specify the executable file name that LINK produces. This option lets you specify the ordering of segments in memory as well as apply attributes to those segments. LINK" file and the attributes of those segments. The name field is the segment name. This is a case sensitive field, so the case of name must exactly match the original segment declaration. The options field is a string of one or more characters that specifies the characteristics of that segment in memory.
Here are some of the more common options:. Most of the other options are either very advanced, uninteresting. Most segments will have at least one of the E, R, or W options. HLA's default segments generally use the following section options:. If you write shorter applications that don't use a lot of local variable space or heavy recursion, you may want to consider setting this value to one megabyte or less, e. You must supply a subsystem option when you create an executable program.
Of course, if you explicitly run the linker yourself, you will have to supply one of these two options. The preceding paragraphs explain most of the command line options you'll use when linking programs written in HLA. For more information about the linker, see the Microsoft on-line documentation that accompanies the linker.
If you get tired of typing really long linker command lines every time you compile and link an HLA program, you can gather all the non-changing command line options into a linker command file and tell the linker to grab those options and filenames from the command file rather than from the command line. Rather than manually supplying these options on each call to the linker, you can use a command line like the following:. The at-sign " " tells the linker to read a list of commands from the specified command file.
Note that you can have several different command files, so if you're compiling and linking several different HLA source files, you can specify the ". The filenames you specify on the linker command line should be the names of OBJ and LIB files that you wish to link together. If you don't call any HLA Standard Library routines unlikely, but possible then you obviously don't need to specify the hlalib. Note that it doesn't hurt to specify the name of a library whose members you don't use.
The linker will not include any object code from a library unless the program actually uses code or data from that library. If you're manually linking code that you compile with HLA, you will probably want to create one linker command file containing all the static commands and include that and any appropriate HLA ".
LINK" files on the linker command line.
Here's a typical example of a static link file i. LINK" file unless you wanted to explicitly set the segment ordering or change the attributes of the memory segments. To run the linker manually, you'd normally tell HLA to perform a compile and assemble only operation. This is done using the HLA "-c" command line option. That is, a command like "hla -c myfile. HLA will not run the linker when you specify the "-c" option. If you prefer, you can run MASM separately by using the "-s" command line option as follows:.
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EXE program with the command line or command file options this section discusses. Note that this section discusses options specific to the LINK. EXE v6. These features may change in a future version of the linker. Please see the Microsoft documentation if you have any questions about how the linker operates or if you're using a different version of the linker.
CPU architects divide memory into several different types depending on cost, capacity, and speed. They call this the memory hierarchy. Many of the levels in the memory hierarchy are transparent to the programmer. That is, the system automatically moves data between levels in the memory hierarchy without intervention on the programmer's part.
However, if you are aware of the effects of the memory hierarchy on program performance, you can write faster programs by organizing your data and code so that it conforms to the expectations of the caching and virtual memory subsystems in the memory hierarchy. This may have changed by the time you read this. They are, however, fully functional under Windows.
However, the linker, not HLA, defines and allocates these two segments. You cannot explicitly declare static objects in these two segments during compilation. You may only change the alignment if you specify different segment names. See the appropriate sections later in this text for a discussion of classes and namespaces. Click Here to receive this Complete Guide absolutely free. On one of my servers I see this when I log in.
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Just starting out and have a question? Assuming such an entry is found, various things then happen, depending on the value found:. If the value is a scalarref, the scalar is dereferenced and returned and any parameters are ignored.
Bracket Notation is discussed in a later section. Note that trying to compile a string into Bracket Notation can throw an exception if the string is not syntactically valid say, by not balancing brackets right. But a very common exception occurs when you have Bracket Notation text that says to call a method "foo", but there is no such method.
What happens if a key is not found, is discussed in a later section, "Controlling Lookup Failure". Note that you might find it useful in some cases to override the maketext method with an "after method", if you want to translate encodings, or even scripts:. Or you may want to override it with something that traps any exceptions, if that's critical to your program:. Other than those two situations, I don't imagine that it's useful to override the maketext method. If you run into a situation where it is useful, I'd be interested in hearing about it.
This is generally meant to be called from inside Bracket Notation which is discussed later , as in. It's for quantifying a noun i. The behavior of this method is handy for English and a few other Western European languages, and you should override it for languages where it's not suitable. You can feel free to read the source, but the current implementation is basically as this pseudocode describes:. So for English with Bracket Notation " And you might find that the output may sound better if you specify a negative form, as in:. An acceptable hack here is to do something like this:.
This returns the given number formatted nicely according to this language's conventions. If you want anything fancier, consider overriding this with something that uses Number::Format , or does something else entirely. Use it directly -- usually from bracket notation -- to avoid quant 's implicit call to numf and output of a numeric quantity. This is just a wrapper around Perl's normal sprintf function.
It's provided so that you can use "sprintf" in Bracket Notation:. Yes, the usual representation for that language tag is "en-US", but case is never considered meaningful in language-tag comparison. A language handle is a flyweight object -- i. A language handle is implemented as a blessed hash. Subclasses of yours can store whatever data you want in the hash. Currently the only hash entry used by any crucial Maketext method is "fail", so feel free to use anything else as you like. Remember: Don't be afraid to read the Maketext source if there's any point on which this documentation is unclear.
This documentation is vastly longer than the module source itself.
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These are Locale::Maketext's assumptions about the class hierarchy formed by all your language classes:. It should derive whether directly or indirectly from Locale::Maketext. It will look for them by taking each language-tag skipping it if it doesn't look like a language-tag or locale-tag! So this:. And it'll stop at the first one that actually loads. But I anticipate no dire consequences if these assumptions do not hold. Language classes may derive from other language classes although they should have "use Thatclassname " or "use base qw They may derive from the project class.
They may derive from some other class altogether. Or via multiple inheritance, it may derive from any mixture of these. I foresee no problems with having multiple inheritance in your hierarchy of language classes. As usual, however, Perl will complain bitterly if you have a cycle in the hierarchy: i. While the key must be a string value since that's a basic restriction that Perl places on hash keys , the value in the lexicon can currently be of several types: a defined scalar, scalarref, or coderef.
The use of these is explained above, in the section 'The "maketext" Method', and Bracket Notation for strings is discussed in the next section.
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The second is, in short, more readable. In particular, it's obvious that the number of parameters you're feeding to that phrase two is the number of parameters that it wants to be fed. Also, once a project is otherwise complete and you start to localize it, you can scrape together all the various keys you use, and pass it to a translator; and then the translator's work will go faster if what he's presented is this:. I almost always use keys that are themselves valid lexicon values.
One notable exception is when the value is quite long. At that point I then go and immediately to define that lexicon entry in the ProjectClass::L10N::en lexicon since English is always my "project language" :. This is because the idea of "class data" isn't directly implemented in Perl, but is instead left to individual class-systems to implement as they see fit..